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Karan Girotra: The Risk Driven Business Model

Four Questions That Will Define Your Company. An Interview with INSEAD Professor Karan Girotra

 
Karan Girotra, Professor of Technology and Operations Management INSEADKaran Girotra

At a time when business model innovation is flourishing as never before, The Risk-Driven Business Model (Harvard Business Review Press) by INSEAD professors Karan Girotra and Serguei Netessine reveals how new startups and large established companies alike are designing or redesigning their business models to better tolerate risk and outpace competitors. In our interview, Karan sites real-world examples of how business model innovation has impacted corporat growth far more than product innovation, and why most companies focus their attention and dollars on product innovation.

According to the authors, the key to creating an innovative business model is to ask these four essential questions:

WHAT key decisions get made in a business;
WHEN these decisions are made;
WHO is empowered to make decisions, and
WHY those individuals make the decisions they do.
By changing a company's approach to these choices, we can fundamentally alter the risks involved and invent new, superior business models.

Welcome to a Leadership Channel podcast on TotalPicture Radio with guest host David Dalka, business transformation consultant, facilitator and keynote speaker reporting. While most companies focus their innovation efforts on new products, companies like Amazon and Netflix are disrupting industries with business model innovation - a different kind of innovation that is cheaper, easier, and more powerful.

TotalPicture Radio Transcript: Karan Girotra

Welcome to TotalPicture Radio. Today's leadership podcast with INSEAD professor Karan Girotra is brought to you by Recruitify. As we all know, recruiting quality candidates for in demand positions is a time consuming, expensive and painstaking process. What if you could easily ask top recruiters specialized in sourcing candidates for the exact position that you're looking to fill to immediately present you with vetted, qualified and interested candidates. Now, imagine doing this in almost no time for less than half the normal fee and without the hassle of negotiating contracts or terms. With Recruitify, you can do just that. Use the link on Karan's show page on TotalPicture Radio and receive $50 off on your first Recruitify job cast. Recruitify, the next generation in recruiting.

And now, here's our interview with Karan Girotra.

Peter: Welcome to a Leadership Channel podcast here on TotalPicture Radio. This is Peter Clayton reporting with guest host David Dalka. While most companies focus their innovation efforts on new products, companies like Amazon, Netflix, Airbnb and Uber are disrupting industries with business model innovation, a different kind of innovation that is cheaper, easier, and more powerful. Joining us is Karan Girotra co-author of the Risk-Driven Business Model recently published by Harvard Business Review Press.

David, welcome back to TotalPicture Radio and Karan, thanks for joining us today.

Karan, I'd like to lead off today's discussion with this question, if business model innovation impacts corporate growth far more than product innovation, why do most companies and, quite frankly, the press focus their attention and dollars on product innovation? You look at a company like Apple, it's all about the next iPhone. It's never about their supply chain or about the latest iTunes or iOS innovation.

Karan: Right. That's a great question. I think a couple of reasons that drive that first is perhaps the most simple reason is, it is just a lack of awareness. So I think while business model innovation for people who have been able to pull it off works very well but there's a lot of folks who just don't know about it, who just don't consciously think about it, and that is related to how the media covers innovation too.

I think from the media side it is again, business model innovation might particularly for the larger readership, a new iPhone is a sexy product to cover. It is something that the consumers directly see.

Business model innovation pretty much by definition is not really about changing the product for the consumer. It's really about changing how you get the product to the consumer, how do you really make it happen, and that is something that is often not even directly visible to the outside so many people in media can't see it until it already is a huge success, and also I think from a consumer point of view it attracts a little less interest.

We've thought of this question carefully, we've tried looking at many industries, and we found if we had to give the top reasons, it would be lack of awareness; if I may say for general consumers a lack of sexiness in this kind of things that happen with it and finally, I think business model innovation is also while very rewarding for everyone who can master it, it does require a certain competency, a certain organizational maturity to be able to pull it off mostly because this is not... when you come up with a new iPhone, the roles of folks at Apple don't really change. It is pretty much the same engineers who produce the next product.

On the other hand, if you think of a radical business model change, for instance, IBM moving from selling products to services; that kind of a change really changes people's jobs. So you're a marketing manager at IBM and we're changing from selling products to services. You're not going to servers or computer products; you're going to now sell a service. That requires a very different marketing organization and that creates kind of this internal constituency against business model innovation and it requires a fairly enlightened and smart leadership to be able to pull that off. I think that's why sometimes some organizations shirk from doing it even though the benefits might be very large and generally at lower risk than regular innovation, than product or technology innovation.

David: You mentioned in there organizational maturity. What exactly are the attributes required for an organization to be ready to do this properly?

Karan: Right. Again, great question. So I think the first attribute again like with my last comment, it really is about awareness. Awareness on two dimensions. One, that changing the business model is not about changing people's roles or anything like that. It's about innovation. It is about creating a disruptive company. So because folks thinks disruption and game changing differences and advantages over competition or over incumbents can really come through new technology and products. They tend to view business model innovation as not a worth enterprise sometimes. So the first kind of organization maturity that is needed is awareness, that thinking about your business model can be game changing.

I think the second thing you need is systems, systems to make that happen, and these systems go all across the full range of systems. They start with a systematic process of doing this of identifying what are potential business model innovation opportunities. That is really what our book The Risk Business Model describes; a systematic process to help organizations do it.

I think the second thing you need is even if you have come up with great business model innovations, you need a certain strength, consistency in the leadership to really be able to take these goals through. Mostly again because I said these involve a fairly radical change to the organization so there will always been internal constituency against doing this. Folks who are afraid of their jobs, to put it very simply. There are ways in which the leadership needs to manage it perhaps by having generating small pilot experiments to convince folks with data rather than making it into a political enterprise and should we do this, should we not.

So things like that are certain systems which are needed to really make business model innovation happen to summarize an awareness that you need to do it and once you know how to, that you need to do it, a certain system organization and discipline to make it happen.

David: Your original background in being a professor was in operations management. How did those experiences lead to your interest and passion in this topic and the book we see before us?

Karan: Operations management put simply is just the science of doing things. Now, too often it is thought of as a tactical tool to just help us check the boxes and make sure the products are on the shelves. Not really the strategic differentiator. I was, like you said, a professor of operations and I was also actually teaching some innovation but these were almost two different sides of my professional personality - almost schizophrenic and I used to like to say that.

One thing I realized is when I was talking about operations, a lot of folks were thinking about it tactically but then if you looked at business history, there were many, many companies who had taken and the most kind of historical and relevant example is a folk person like Henry Ford who really retaught the operations of making cars and created an industry around it. There are hundreds of examples like that in business history. If you look at that, you see that many of these companies, many industries, for instance the automobile industry, even the digital music industry that was mentioned, really caught on not because of new technology but only when somebody came up with a business model to make it happen.

So to me it seemed and even more specific than a business model, it was very much how someone changed operations to establish an industry because before that it was a hobby and esoteric thing. For instance with automobiles, the German about 120 years or so back, the German engineers had designed great engines and great fossil fuel based vehicles but these were novelty items. It is only when Henry Ford came up with a different operational system, a different way of doing things that the automobile industry started. With digital music, part of Apple's ability to really open up that digital content space now about 12 or 13 years back was really about creating the iTunes platform where folks could buy a song a piece and bringing publishers and consumers on to that platform. Really a new business model for selling music rather than the store based physical format.

So from the operations side, it seemed that operations could do more. It wasn't just a tactical thing to make the wheels spin right. It was actually something which could be game changing.

On the other hand when I would talk to folks who are talking about innovation, we talk to top CEOs and what would happen is everyone would say innovation is one of my top priorities. The next question I would ask is how are you really going about making it happen since you say innovation is your top three priorities in the next five years. Typically they'd say, oh yeah, we have an R&D group and they think about it and then they tell me what's good or bad. That seemed kind of very hands off and for a priority for a top leadership which is one of their three properties it didn't really seem... in most cases, it was something which was great to say in mission statements and somewhat okay to mention too but in the end in practice, it really was just something given to a small group of people who in some industries were not even very empowered. Particularly I think while this kind of R&D based innovation was great in pharma, in tech but the vast majority of other kind of CEOs we would meet in commodities, in energy, in say cement, in steel, they really didn't have any innovation going on even though they were talking a lot about it.

So again from the innovation point of view, we saw a huge demand for an innovation which applies to beyond the three sectors out there today and then we again saw an opportunity on putting the two things together operations and operations thinking used as innovation and then really bringing an innovation which can apply to a far broader set of industries than traditional product innovation. And that's the somewhat long journey from operations to business model innovation.

David: So the qualifier in the book in the front, risk driven with my background in the investment industry, I'm very familiar with risk and its implications for the enterprise, yet most executives go a whole career without exposure to serious deep dives into risk concepts. What do you mean exactly by risk driven and what do leaders need to do differently to incorporate that?

Karan: That's a good question. When it comes to examining a business model or examining any organization's performance, you're systematically used to looking at revenue numbers or cost numbers. That is great if you improve your revenues, decrease your costs, business does do better. But it turns out there is a third dimension of really evaluating and thinking about business models, and that dimension is risk. What I mean by that is the same business model perhaps with the same revenue structures, same cost structure, if you somehow decrease the risk in that business model, that could be a superior business model. At the very least give you those revenues and cost in a more consistent basis, for instance.

So the central thesis of our book is that the cost and revenues are great ways of creating new business models but perhaps they've been done to the core. Most companies have cut costs very aggressively, so those are going to get your improvement 2%, 3%, 4%, or 5% but not game changing disruption or innovations.

On the other hand, few companies and entrepreneurs have thought of industries and from the perspective of not just cost and revenues, but really from the perspective of risk in the business model. So once folks start thinking about the risk in their business model and how could they change the risk could decrease the risk while keeping their revenues and cost the same. In fact, many times, they could just decrease the risk while increasing their costs. Increasing their costs and it could turn out to be a better model.

For instance, this is what happened in the apparel industry. Zara really changed the industry. Zara the Spanish retailer and now of course globally very successful and really has come up in the last 20 years in an industry which had had no innovation pretty much for almost 100 years. Zara comes in and shakes up the industry largely by a different business model which involves a much higher cost structure, so more costs, because they produce most of their clothing in Southern Europe and now perhaps parts of Africa and Eastern Europe all of which are far more expensive than East Asia, be it China, maybe now Bangladesh, Vietnam. So the cost structure is a lot higher but it turns out that if you produce clothes in Europe to sell to Europe or the US, you can have clothes from the designers table to the store in about 3 weeks, whereas if you produce them in Asia, you get them in 3 months. Producing clothes 3 weeks in advance is a lot less risky often enterprise than producing clothes 3 months in advance. Why? Because you have better idea of what styles are doing well. You have a better idea on what fashion trends are catching on. You have a better idea on what colors are good.

So as a whole, that really is a new business model which even though it might have higher cost, it actually has much lower risk and that really is what we mean by risk driven business model; a model design keeping in mind the risk considerations also of the industry.

David: Thank you for walking us through that. One of the things that I love about this book is it talked about a ton of obscure previous unknown examples and stories. Walk us through another one or two of those that you really thought get the point across that you just made.

Karan: Another, I think, example of a slightly different kind of risk, so in the example of Zara, this really was not the risk that the business model faces is not knowing what the big fashion trends are going to be and they made their risk exposure a little bit smaller. Another kind of risk that often organizations have is of individuals not acting in the interest of the larger organization or individuals having different interests than what you'd like them to have perhaps.

So company perhaps a little bit obscure to some of our listeners is an Israeli company called Netafim. This company makes irrigation equipment, drip irrigation equipment. Now, this equipment is as far more efficient in irrigating a plot of land than perhaps traditional irrigation methods. Particularly useful in drier climates. Right now actually it's a very successful product in California because of the weather we've had there in the last few years. So this is a very high tech equipment which gives exactly the right amount of water to the plants on the basis of the weather forecast, on the basis of the different properties of the soil composed of many sensors and real time information system increases crop yields by an order of magnitude.

Now this company made this great product and it was trying to sell it, did well in the US and Europe but then it identified that one of the biggest markets for this product is actually dry parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Remember, this is an Israeli company and they're trying to go in and try to sell this product there. They go in there and it turns out that most farmers are like sounds good but it's an expensive product and on top of it, I have no reason to believe all that you're saying that okay it will improve yields by 50%, 100%. That's really going to materialize. I have to pay you up front and then this may or may not give me the returns that you're promising and put simply, I don't trust you.

So now this company had a quandary because it was not really only a business enterprise to break into these regions, it really was a social enterprise. Because in these parts if one could increase the productivity of agriculture, one could argue that it can solve a lot of other problems, other socioeconomic problems in the region. Now, this company is trying to make this happen and then they really change the business model around selling of this product. They try to make it a little more different model for selling. The offer now is they go to the farmers and say we will install this equipment for you. Not only will we install it, we will maintain it and actually do the day-to-day running of this equipment which would involve making sure it is downloading the latest weather data, so on and so forth. They're like, we will take care of all of it and we will do it all for free. Rather than sell the product for a certain amount of money, we'll help you. You have to share with us perhaps 50-50 or in some proportion. Now suddenly from the farmer's point of view, it's a no brainer. You pay nothing and if you have a yield you lose; okay you have to share some of it but only if you have something.

On the other hand, from the company' point of view this is also a great idea because before that they were selling nothing. Now at least the farmers are there and because they know their technology works, they're willing to take the bet and typically this 50% of the crop yields increase could be significantly more than cost of the price of the system, so they make even more money this way even if they had sold. So this really brings this new technology to a place where it wouldn't have; again, not by improving the technology in anyway but by really changing the business model around it. In this case, the risk that they reduce is what one might call an incentive alignment risk that the farmer when he was purchasing his incentives or the company's incentive to design a good system are better aligned with the farmers in this new model than in the older model.

So that's another example of a company helping create a new business model. The best part I find about this is, is business model innovation applies across the board. So this was on the sales side. We have multiple other examples on different dimensions on the people management side perhaps on many other dimensions.

David: That brings up a great point that it goes across multiple organization including what we talked a lot about here on TotalPicture Radio all the time which is hiring and hiring managers. When we met the other day for lunch, you discussed that you have an example of a company that was hiring people without actual job interviews. Tell us more about that.

Karan: So a company, I think, many of our listeners might have heard of the company is Wordpress.com. They're a hosted service for Wordpress. The company is Automatic which really owns wordpress.com. They've been a big success. A large fraction of blogs online majority of them are hosted on the wordpress platform and many of them on wordpress.com. This company has covered an excellent and a very interesting way of hiring people.

Traditional job interviews are a classic example of an information risk. In the same way as Zara doesn't know what trends will be good and what clothes will catch on; in the same way, when we're hiring an individual, there is very poor information on two things. One, the person's capabilities. Will he fit in? Will he not fit in? And not just the hard capabilities but the soft capabilities of cultural fit and so on and so forth, and also of what the organizations needs would be in the kind of people they need. Do you need a specialist in X or specialist in Y? So that is a challenge all hiring managers face. If we would be honest to ourselves, I think most hiring managers would admit that it is in the end an article of faith. Even the best designed interviewing systems really can't test real life performance. They're best and inaccurate signal of what might happen in a bit.

So Automatic comes up with this new kind of "job interview." They don't really call you in for interview, they don't do an HR interview followed by different rounds. What they do is they bring in people and it's a very simple test, you have to work in one of the teams at Automatic for 3 weeks and for that they will offer you some compensation. By the end of the 3 weeks, we all will sit together and decide if you want to work here or not. So this is not a formal interview. It is a 3-week one might say pre-job kind of an internship without an interviews, and it really makes it - Automatic also, I must add, has a very unique cultural challenge.

Automatic is a company which allows most of its employees to be based anywhere. They don't really have a physical location. They're a fairly big and very successful internet company but the vast majority of their employees work remotely. So they don't even get to see each other. So cultural fit is really important because you bring in a person even though these employees don't see each other, they work collaboratively to develop new products, new services very closely. So they might be talking to each other 50 times a day even though they might not be face-to-face. It's really getting the right people into the system is very important because otherwise it will break and the best way to test that they found and this far out performed any interview, any database selection schemes that they had applied. So now they really just do no interviews at all and simply just bring in people, test them for three weeks and take it from there.

David: Let's look at the other side of that. You talked about the companies not necessarily knowing their needs. Earlier you talked about sometimes hiring managers have a personal incentive to not always hire the best person if they feel threatened by a new skill or a concept that might be involved in a paradigm shift or business model involved in your work. Let's bring this elephant out in the middle of the room. What do you see there that CEOs and boards need to be thinking about so that they can actually empower their talent people to identify those situations and create the right situations involving new people.

Karan: So most often an interview process, an HR process for bringing in new folks would involve often the direct manager and the people who have to directly work with the individual in a fairly significant way. Now, that is clearly important and necessary because you want the people to be compatible but at the same time this very process can be one of these biggest barriers to change because if you really want to bring in a new person to change the business model or drive through some important fixes asking the incumbent leadership to evaluate candidates for that has the potential of having a slight incentive issue.

For instance, if I need to hire... again, let's go back to the IBM example. If you're going to move from selling products to services, a very important strategic shift and like I mentioned, that would really make the marketing managers who are used to selling products perhaps a little bit concerned about their roles; not all of them but there might be some in there. Generally, not a majority I might even add because most folks I found really do want to work in the interest of the organization, but then again, everybody has their individual incentives too.

Now, you need to build a new group of people who can sell this as a service. To make this happen, in the HR process, if you involve the current marketing organization, the marketing manager who has made his experience in selling products is the one who's truly proved the next generation which is going to transform into services. It really is like hiring someone who will make him redundant. And that does have the potential of certain incentive issues. And in these cases, when there is a radical shift that the organization needs, the need to bring in external, perhaps third parties to really mediate the hiring process to watch it more carefully so that someone who is more aware of the holistic needs for the organization to change can be part of this.

Peter: I want to interject something here. A recent study that was done by the Corporate Executive Board found that 74% of the respondents reported that their most recent hire had a personality "similar to mine." So it's not just a bias towards bringing in people that perhaps may not out-perform that hiring manager, it's a bias towards 'I want to hire people who are similar to me and who I feel comfortable with,' and that gets away from the whole issue of the importance of diversity in organizations today.

Karan: Exactly right. There are multiple studies that have found that in terms of hiring people and in evaluating employees, your culture familiarity with the individual ends up being a fairly important factor. That is terrible from not just a change management point of view, but two other point of views.

One that Peter mentioned which really is diversity, and diversity not just in race or other things but also diversity in intellectual grounding, background thinking. If we get all people who think the same way in the organization, we really aren't going to be able to change. If we get all people who think the same way in the organization, and therein I think comes the real rub, that is really, really bad for innovation.

I'm always amazed by companies which have debated a new product for months and they bring it out and it's a complete shock to everyone outside. Microsoft has announced a lot of recent changes. They've invested tons of money in a product, and when it comes out, people are almost surprised with some very basic factors that were overlooked in the product. The core problem in most of these places is group thing; it's the lack of independent thinking. And hiring practices, because of the reasons that Peter mentioned, reinforce that. Everyone hires people who think like them. It's not surprising that the organization will get into a group thing and that can be killer from a intellectual diversity point of view and from an innovation point of view.

Peter: I want to jump into something now real quick and you wrote a lot about in your book, and that's disruption. I recently interviewed Chip Conley who was the founder of Joie de Vivre boutique hotel chain based in California that was recently bought by one of the Pritzker families. He completely disrupted the hotel industry and now he's working with Airbnb - another huge disruptive force out there. And you look at companies like Uber and Lyft that are completely disrupting industries, so talk to us a little bit about that and some of the challenges.

Karan: Today, I think we're living in the golden age of new business models which are game changing. So if we look at Uber, Airbnb, these are all companies, first I'd like to stress, which are disrupting but not disrupting by any new technology. If you look at what Uber is doing, that is something a taxi company could have done 15 years back or 10 years back certainly since the smartphone became a substantial product. This was a product that the incumbent could have thought of, not just as a technology product but as a new business model of bringing their suppliers, the drivers and their customers together; really matching them using geolocation based platforms like Uber does, along with changing prices and so on and so forth.

So this is a new business model and it is disrupting industries. In the hotel industry, I think certain figures really highlight how disruptive an Airbnb can be. In a normal hotel chain, when Airbnb enters a new city, within months or weeks with very limited marketing or any other spend, they might bring in on the order of 10,000 or 15,000 rooms on to the market within a matter of a month or two. On the other hand, a regular hotel chain, probably adds that many numbers across the world in a year, not even in a month. So the kind of competitor that a hotel chain or a taxi company is facing today is a very different beast. It's a beast which is coming with a different business model.

Now, if you are one of those disruptors, if you are an entrepreneur and are thinking about how to change an industry, be it hiring, be it any industry, then I think the prescription for you is clear, think about new business models, try to make the change happen, perhaps even follow the systematic process of changing the business model that we talk about.

On the other hand, if you are the incumbent, that poses, it's not that promising a situation for you. My main recommendation there is it is always better to disrupt yourself before someone else disrupts you, and it turns out that you're often very well-positioned, you're probably the best person to disrupt yourself because people don't fully get that. So for sure, Uber a group of guys in San Francisco, came up with this app and are disrupting the taxi industry. But think about it, if the taxi industry was not so in love with their incumbent model, with their old model, they were far better positioned to make it happen than Uber. It was lying there in front of them, smartphones were out there, this is not a need that was not known, it is just that they were too much afraid of changing their own incumbent model. And so if you don't disrupt yourself, someone else will.

There's a positive side to it, you are often the best position because you know the industry, because the customers trust you. You are better positioned to change the industry in many ways than a new phone can be. What you need to do is deal with the internal barriers to change within your organization.

David: You talked a little bit about - when we talked the other day about Skunk Works, and that's potentially one of the best ways to do this. What are the best ways for companies in your view to actually do this and overcome some of the barriers that we've talked about here?

Karan: First off, again, I'll reiterate it is about developing the right systems to make it happen. Now, what could be these good systems? A few of these systems which we found to be very effective is, first up gradual piloting and testing in a separate Skunk Works organization. I like calling it a little bit more like running an internal insurgency or a guerrilla warfare type attack to the existing market. What do I mean by that?

We found that companies that come in and say the CEO comes in and says tomorrow we're going to have a different business model, let's make it happen. In this kind of style, even in the most respected experience senior leadership rarely works out, for a simple reason, because the internal constituency goes broad and deep for the existing model. By definition, people who are doing the best in the organization are the ones who have most to preserve in keeping the existing business model.

So that kind of coming in and saying let's change everything top down often doesn't work well. What does work well is if the senior leadership understands that this change needs to happen and then rather than going into everyone and showing them oh let's change it, tutorially, what works well is to create a small empowered group often separate from the main organization which is what a Skunk Works would mean. They'd often be sitting in one separate physical location and really give them some freehand to create an internal startup or an internal insurgency in a very limited way, perhaps in one market, perhaps with a small subset of customers, often not even the most important customers or markets.

So give them a little bit of freedom in a very separate, small organizational Skunk Works team who doesn't have to comply with the usual bureaucracy and the rules and let them run some experiments. And these are just experiments, nobody say you're going to change the organization or anything like that. You let them run some experiments which test out things on the basis of the results from those experiments. It will be one of two things; either you think it works really well. I think that's often rarely the case. Your first hypothesis is often proven wrong once you start doing it. But if it does work well, you take that data from that experiment to the organization and try to build a constituency on the basis of facts, on the basis of actual working pilots, rather than on the basis of hopes and dreams. And that is the case if the experiment works.

If it doesn't work, the recommendation is simple, you either kill the project or find out why it doesn't work and improve the experiment.

So in principle, I think and there's more science into how exactly one can design experiments to get the most important information early on. But as a whole, the idea is to not come in and say we're going to change the organization in one day, but really create an internal insurgency, a small empowered but not with all the resources of the organization - a small internal startup which can start creating some ordinate facts, some ultimate data to challenge the status quo. I find that data and real world instances and examples tend to be the best anecdote against organizational inertia, against politics, against people saying stuff to keep things the same.

David: So to close, people read this book in 2014 and five years from now, the world has adopted the methods and the thoughts in this book. What outcomes are the world going to see if they do that?

Karan: I think we'll see more disruption because I think disruption and game-changing innovation has been restricted because of our view of thinking of innovation only as products and technology in a very limited set of sectors right now. It is mostly tech, biotech perhaps and sectors like that. You're seeing a little bit of this already with Uber and Airbnb. You're seeing disruption happening in industries which people thought had been the same for a hundred years. Taxi hailing a ride services have been the same since the times of the horse and buggy. Really, we will see disruption happening in many more industries than people think of disruption coming from business models.

Also, I think and hope that this kind of disruption will extend beyond the corporate sector. So I think for companies, great, this will be more innovation, more money and more wealth, but some of my personal hopes is that this really also disrupts the way in which many times cities are run in many ways in which public systems work. I think that's one place where the business models have a whole host of conflicts of interest or incentive alignment risk or whole host of information risks, and we're improving those models you may call economic models, now perhaps now business models in the public sector. Be it in urban planning, be it in healthcare, I think we can have some really game-changing impacts if we rethought the way we do things and not just about the technology to make those things happen.

We are seeing it a little bit in urban transportation now, not just with Uber and Lyft but also with bike sharing systems, perhaps more in the public domain, a new business model of using bikes which is changing urban planning and many things. So we'll see more disruption in different sectors and I hope more and more in the public sector too.

David: Thank you for joining us, Karan. The book is called The Risk-Driven Business Model and it's on the Harvard Business Review Press, available now in the format of your choice. And, Karan, thank you so much for joining us today, we really enjoyed it.

Karan: Thanks for having me.

Blockbuster's failure to adapt its business model in the Netflix age proved to be a cautionary tale, while Amazon's wild success is due to their mastery of regularly reinventing their business model to adapt to changing circumstances. How can your company be the next Amazon, instead of the next Blockbuster?

Author Biography:

Karan Girotra is Professor of Technology and Operations Management at INSEAD. His research has appeared in top academic journals and has been featured by the Financial Times, Businessweek, Sloan Management Review, and Harvard Business Review. A former entrepreneur himself, Girotra continues to engage actively with start-ups, largely as an instigator, adviser, and mentor. He has appeared on First Business Television.

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